Belonging to the biological subfamily of bovid, bovine are cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals, the males of which have horns that neither branch nor are shed yearly, but are permanent, growing throughout the animal’s lifespan. This group includes both large domesticated cattle and the wild bovine.

On Pern, dometic cattle, also known as Herdbeasts or Bovine are of great economic significance to humans. They are used for food – milked or slaughtered for their meat, to provide clothing – their hide for tanning or hair clipped for use in weaving, for burden-bearing, draught or plowing fields, or for transportation is pulling carts and sometimes even ridden. Their dung is used as a fertilizer, and as a fuel when dried.

Because of the unexpected advent of Thread and the migration of the entire colony of original settlers (the Ancients) to the caves in the Northern Continent (known in Pernese culture as the Second Crossing) there exists in the Southern Continent great herds of feral bovine roaming the vast unsettled lands.

For clarity they have been divided into two groups:

Domestic Bovine
Feral and Wild Bovine

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